The Best Ultrawide Monitors for Gaming

There’s nothing worse than being close to victory in a first-person shooter game when the monitor flickers out. Or playing an otherworldly RPG and being fully aware that you’re not really in that other world. That’s why you need an ultrawide monitor that delivers on both responsiveness as well as color and contrast. What to Look for in an Ultrawide Monitor for GamingWhat defines an “ultrawide monitor”? These displays have a 21:9 aspect ratio, as opposed to the 16:9 of traditional monitors. That gives you a ton of horizontal space, immersing you completely in the landscape of your game.Immersion is the key word there. In addition to size, the best monitors for gaming have excellent color quality and sufficient brightness to bring your gaming landscape to life. Beyond that, they also need to be responsive enough to guarantee a smooth gaming experience without any ill-timed lags or cutting out. We’ll get into the essentials of what makes a goo...

The Advantages of the Use of Computers in Education

Computers are useful tools in different field of applications. Computers are very much useful in the field of engineering and architecture and especially in the aspects of design and calculations. These machines are also beneficial in their application in the field of business and economics as it allows users to store and retrieve large amount of data in a less amount of time. Computers are now use in different fields of education. In the field of teaching in particular, the wide use of computers are evident in different school in elementary, high-schools, colleges and universities. The use of computers in learning provides both advantages and disadvantages in the learning processes. Computers are advantageous in the sense that these machines teach more effectively in technical sense, they can reach and teach more students and kept students more focus with the subject. The use of computer technology in learning allows the teacher to individualize the learning instructions as well as...

Definition of Computer Networks and Its Advantages

Definition of Computer Networks and its Advantages Network is an anthology of computers associated to each other. It allows the computers to communicate with each other and share resources which include information, software and peripheral devices such as printers, scanners Now days, computers are used in a wider range. All the organizations are using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work. It is necessary to connect them which form a network. The networks are classified into different types according to the network size. When computers communicate with each other, they follow certain specific formats and rules. This formats and rules are explained by the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. This OSI model is conceptual and has seven layers and each layer is having its own functions. As network selection criterion forms the basis of a network, since it helps to select a secured and efficient network. The criterion explains network performan...

The Best Android Tablets

iPads and Windows tablets tend to get all the attention, but you can’t beat the affordability of an Android tablet. Having said that, it’s not always about price. Many people want their Android tablet to deliver on performance, too. So, what makes a great Android tablet? What to Look for in an Android TabletFirst, a disclaimer: For most people, an iPad satisfies everything they want. It delivers on performance, accessories, software, and more. The iPad is undeniably the most powerful tablet out there, but not everyone wants to be part of the Apple ecosystem. Moreover, not everyone wants to pay to be part of the Apple ecosystem. Like most Apple products, iPads are not cheap. The cost of the newest iPad models ranges from $329 on the lower end to nearly $2,000. On the other hand, you can get a decent Android tablet, like the Amazon Fire HD 8, for about $60. Even if you get the newest Amazon tablet—the HD 10 (our budget pick, below)—it’s still ...

File Access Methods

Information is kept in files. Files reside on secondary storage. When this information is to be used, it has to be accessed and brought into primary main memory. Information in files could be accessed in many ways. It is usually dependent on an application. Sequential Access:  A simple access method, information in a file is accessed sequentially one record after another. To process the with record all the 1-1 records previous to 1 must be accessed. Sequential access is based on the tape model that is inherently a sequential access device. Sequential access is best suited where most of the records in a file are to be processed. For example, transaction files. Direct Access: Sometimes it is not necessary to process every record in a file. It may not be necessary to process records in the order in which they are present. Information present in a record of a file is to be accessed only if some key value in that record is known. In all such cases, direct access is used. Direct access...

Functions of a Personal Computer(PC)

Computer is an integral part of everyday life. We use Personal Computer (PC) to perform Various tasks include data storage and processing are the important tasks performed by the PC. Takes data from user, processes it, and gives the output in a prescribed format. The use of a Personal Computer (PC) makes mathematical calculations easier. Scientists use the Personal Computer (PC) for scientific applications such, as weather forecasts, research, and chemical analysis. Personal Computer (PC) provides faster means of communication through the Internet by sending and receiving e-mails. We can use the Internet to gain information on any topic. We can use the PC for entertainment, such as for watching movies using DVDs, listening to music using CDs and MP3s. We can also download software, graphics, music, and movies from the Internet using the Personal Computer (PC). It would be hard to imagine today's world without the PC. A machine that performs such a varied range of functions is hard t...

What is a Machine ID (Computer Name) and How Can It Be Changed?

What on Earth is She Writing About? I have been writing for about 40 years and although my content has varied, it usually is based upon something having to do with a medieval theme. Alternative Healing, Gemstones, Relationships, Architecture, Literature and Poetry, are the categories that I am known for writing about.  What the majority of my readers don't know about me is that I have been working mainly in the computer industry for the past 20 years and have a greater amount of expertise in this field than any other.  Although it was never my intent to write technology articles and I haven't written one since the days of the KB at many previous job sites. I have recently seen a good number of basic tech questions here on Factoidsz that I can answer with my eyes closed or with very little research, so, I thought I would put my two cents in here. What is a Machine ID or Computer Name? A Machine ID or Computer Name in a nutshell, is the name that a...

Top Laptops Comparison: Lenovo Vs. HP Vs. Dell.com

With three companies enjoying longstanding reputations for success, warranties which are largely equal to each other save for occasional deals, and an almost equally spotty record for service and complaints from customers across the board, these are three companies whose laptops just about beg you to get out there and kick some tires to find out which products are best for you. In this case we thought it best to do a more in-depth look at the laptops each company offered at each level, low-end, mid-level and high-end. Read on for an in-depth comparison at all places along that spectrum. Low End Laptops HP Pavilion Features Cost: $467 Display: 15.6 inches, 1366 x 768 pixels Processor: 1.9 Gigahertz Advanced Micro Devices A4-3305M, 4 Gigabytes Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Graphics: Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 6480G Pros fair display quality processing speed adequate for low-level software processing speed mostly adequate for mid-level software smooth browsi...

TigerDirect vs Monoprice vs AVADirect: Technology Stores Compared

TigerDirect TigerDirect is a technology store with all types of electronics. They also sell other types of products plus they offer services. TigerDirect is located in Miami, Florida and has been in business for 20 years. Their online store, TigerDirect.com has been ranked in the top 25 online retailers by the New York Times. TigerDirect also has retail stores in addition to their online technology store. You can contact their customer sales department at 1-800-800-8300 and their customer service number is 1-800-888-6111. TigerDirect Technology and Product Line TigerDirect sells a large selection of electronic and technology products, and more. You can search for products on TigerDirect by the category: Cell Phones Computers and Tablets lists computers, peripherals and accessories Computer Hardware includes components and networking Electronics has televisions, GPS, hobby electronics, audio, computer games and more. Health, Fitness and Sports category carries sports and out...

History of Computer Motherboards

History of Computer Motherboards Motherboard is a multifaceted PCB (printed circuit board) that is the fundamental element of a lot of electronic devices, predominantly Personal computers. Motherboards are also acknowledged as system board, main board or logic board (in case of Apple PCs). A motherboard is a podium that presents electrical bonds from end to end which additional elements of a system commune, and it also has the CPU (central processing unit), normally termed to as the computer brains. Motherboards are in addition there in cellular devices, stop watches, clocks, etc. Motherboards consist of a lot of important elements of a personal computer like main memory, microprocessor, microprocessor's sustaining chipset that offers connection between central processing unit and additional peripheral elements. The devices transformed the way PC systems were planned. The previous editions were perplexing as well as time-intense. Few things that a motherboard these days consists of ...

Adorama Vs Best Buy Vs Newegg: Prices, Service and Websites Compared

The three elements of price, service and website are usually what people look for first in consumer stores with an online presence.  The company that does the best in the most categories for what you need will be the one you really want to go for in general. NewEgg Newegg has been at the online website game considerably longer than many other options, so for a purely online experience it generally can’t be beaten. WEBSITE FEATURES SuperCombos- New egg has an interesting SuperCombo package deal offer that you can do in various different fields such as DIY, Gaming, Apple, Server, and son. For example, you can get a PS3 and 2 games with a 15 dollar  discount. Downloads-This tends to be a big advantage NewEgg has over other sites. You can get; Operating Systems Educational References Video editing/Graphic Design PC/Mac games Utilities/backup E-Gift cards And more! NewEgg has quite a huge selection of stuff you can buy and download right away. If you alrea...

Tree Topology Vs Hybrid Topology

Tree Topology Vs Hybrid Topology Tree Topology A tree topology combines the characteristics of linear bus and star topology. In Tree topology, group of star networks are connected to the linear bus backbone. Tree topology enables the user to expand and configure the existing network depending on the requirements. Twisted pair cable is commonly used by tree topology. Tree topology is also called as hierarchical structure. Basic Structure of Tree Topology A tree topology connects multiple star networks. According to the structure of star topology, all devices are connected to a central hub. There are multiple such hub devices which are connected directly to a tree bus. Thus, the hub is used as the root of the tree of number of devices. Tree networks thus may have branches that contain multiple devices connected point-to-point. Signal from transmitting device first reaches the hub to which it is connected. Hub then directs this signal to tree bus which then travels along the entire n...

Logical Memory and Virtual Memory

Logical Memory Logical memory enables the user to use large amount of memory to store data. It defines way to organize the physical memory such as RAM and cache. This enables the Operating System to arrange memory into a logical manner such as assigning a logical address. Logical address is a memory location and it is accessed by an application program. The system maps the logical address to real physical storage address. During the execution of the program, same logical address can be mapped to many different physical addresses. Logical Memory Organization The computer's main memory is divided into different categories such as conventional, upper and extended memory based on the motherboard, CPU and the Operating System. It is essential to understand how the computers use these memories efficiently. Conventional Memory Size of the conventional memory is 640 KB and it is used by the Disk Operating System (DOS) and other programs such as WordStar, Lotus etc. This memory is also ca...

Why Charles Babbage Is Called The Father Of Computers

Features of Babbage’s Analytical engine The analytical engine was designed to compute any mathematical function in any form. It could add, subtract, multiply, or divide according to instructions that were coded on cards. The design incorporated many of the characteristics of the modern electronic computer. As Babbage envisioned it, the analytical engine would have a store for the numbers used in the calculations and a mill which would be a central mechanism where arithmetic operations were to be performed. Programs for the mill would be written on punched cards.  The codes on the cards would instruct the mill in the operations to be performed. These would determine what processes were used in manipulating the data.  The data would be transferred back and forth between the store and the mill by a system of gears and levers.  The engine would ring a bell if a value went below zero or above the capacity of the machine, since either of these events would resu...

Components of the Floppy Disk Drive

Components of the Floppy Disk Drive The floppy disk drive consists of different parts. These parts interact with each other and perform the functions of reading and writing data on the floppy disk. It is important to know the different components of the floppy disk drive before servicing the drive, and to understand the working of the floppy disk drive. Read Write Head The floppy disk drive has a read write head. It performs the work of reading and writing data on the floppy disk by converting the binary signals to electromagnetic signals. The double-sided floppy disk drive has two heads on both the sides of the floppy disk drive to read and write data on both sides of the floppy disk. The position of the read writes head on| both sides of the drive is such that they are not opposed to each other. This positioning prevents any interruption between the heads while writing data on the floppy disk. The floppy disk drive uses the same head to perform both reading and writing data on t...

Components of the CD Drive

Components of the CD Drive The CD drive consists of different parts that enable it to read data from the disc. The Computer CD drive is a precision device because the timing of sending the laser beam and collecting the laser beam reflected from the CD must be precise. A misalignment in the structure or working of any part of the CD drive will result in an error in reading the data from the CD. Optical Head The optical head of the CD-ROM drive consists of a read laser and an optical sensor. The read laser targets a laser beam on the disc. The optical sensor collects the reflected laser beam from the disc. The optical head is a very delicate and expensive part of the CD-ROM drive. It is also a high precision part of the Computer CD drive because any deviations in the alignment of the optical head, will not allow the CD drive to read data from the disc properly. The CD Writer has two lasers, one for reading data from the CD disc and one laser for writing data on the CD disc. The str...

Campus Area Network (CAN) Vs. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Vs. Wide Area Network (WAN)

Campus Area Network (CAN) Vs. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Vs. Wide Area Network (WAN) Local Area Network is basically used for computer networking of small span of areas but Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a bigger area and in general connects two or more Local Area Network. In this Article we will try and understand the Difference between Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). Campus Area Network (CAN) Campus Area Network (CAN) is a computer network. It is made up of two or more Local Area Networks (LANs) within a limited area. It ran cover many buildings in an area. The main feature of Campus Area Network (CAN) is that all of the computers which are connected together have some relationship to each other. For example, different building in a campus can be connected using Campus Area Network (CAN). It will help to interconnect academic departments, library and computer...

Computer Capabilities

Most people are aware that a computer is a machine that can perform arithmetic operations, but it is much more than just an arithmetic number crunching device. It is also a machine that can choose copy, move compare and perform various non-arithmetic operations on many alphabetic, numeric and other symbols that humans use to represent things. The computer manipulates these symbols in the desired way through a sequence of instructions, called a program. A program is a detailed set of human instructions that directs the computer to function in a specific way to produce a desired result. The programs form the software part of the computer. Electrical or electromechanical components are known as hardware. Speed and accuracy capabilities: A computer works one step at a time. It can add, subtract, compare digits and letters, move and copy numbers and letters. There’s nothing profound in these operations. What is significant is the computer speed. This speed is measured in milliseconds...

Types of Floppy Disk Drives

Types of Floppy Disk Drives Floppy disk drives are available in different sizes. The floppy disk drive shares the name with the size of the floppy disk that it uses. For example, the floppy disk drive that uses the 3.5 inch floppy disk is called the 3.5 inch floppy disk drive. 5.25 Inch Floppy Disk Drive Older systems used the 5.25 inch floppy disk drive to read and write data to the 5.25 inch floppy disk. This drive has a lever on the front of the drive that must be turned clockwise, to lock the floppy disk in after inserting the disk in the drive. You must turn the lever anti-clockwise to remove the floppy disk from the drive. 3.5 Inch Floppy Disk Drive The 3.5 inch floppy disk drive can read and write data to the 3.5 inch floppy disk. The 3.5 inch floppy drive spins the floppy disk at a speed of 300 rotations per minute. This enables the floppy to be formatted with 80 tracks on each side of the disk. Each track is alienated into 18 sectors. The sector can hold 512 bytes. The 3....

Components of SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS)

Components of SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) Most of the components used in SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) can be easily identified. However, some components are difficult to identify. Some components are designed especially for a particular model. The different components of SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) are: Switch Mode (chopper) Transistors and other Semiconductors. A transistor is small and fast semiconductor used for amplification and voltage stabilization. Bipolar Power Transistors (often BU or 2SC/2SD numbers.) High voltage power transistors, which are used as the main switch mode transistor. Diodes and Rectifiers - AC line rectifier uses a combination of 2 or 4 diodes. High efficiency diodes are used to rectify output voltages. These diodes look like normal axial lead diodes. They can be combined in pairs inside TO220 type packages. To troubleshoot SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) problems, test for shorted and open junctions. Capacitors (filter and bypass) in an SWITC...

Types of Motherboards

Types of Motherboards  Motherboard is the most important component of a system. It is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) where all the components of a system are connected. The Central Processing Unit (CPU), hard drives, memory and every other part of a system is connected to the motherboard by means of slots, connectors and sockets. The motherboard chipset is a series of chips that are a part of the motherboard. Types of Motherboards Motherboards and the capacity and efficiency of motherboards differ according to the type of system you use. Motherboards are classified as integrated and Non-integrated devices depending on the devices they support. Motherboards which have all the ports for connecting various devices on board are known as integrated motherboards. All the latest desktop, server and laptop boards are of the integrated type. Motherboards which do not support connecting devices are known as Non-Integrated motherboards. Older boards were of non integrated types.  Clas...

Newegg vs TigerDirect vs J&R: Consumer Electronics Stores Compared

It’s a new world, and in the new world you don’t need to buy consumer electronics from the local retail store. You can instead order electronics online these days, and you’ll often get them for a much cheaper price, with a higher quality and a better selection than what you could find locally, and all shipped right to your door. You’ll also get a lot more information about the site from reviews since it’s worldwide and not just local. The best site for you will depend on your needs. Newegg NewEgg is easily one of the most famous consumer electronics site on the web. They get impeccable reviews all over, and have one of the best selections of consumer electronics you’ll find available online these days. FEATURES- Gift Cards-You’ll find many electronics related gift cards here for other stores, but you can also get a Newegg card itself. These never expire, and you can deliver them online with Neweggflash- You get a new “Double deal...

4 Effective Ways to Prevent Laptop Battery Failure

The battery is one of the most important parts of a laptop computer that should not be failed. There are many uses of laptop computers such working with important documents and surfing the Internet while on travel. However, the battery is the soul of the laptop computer to make it work properly while traveling. This is also a very sensitive part of the laptop especially to heat. As a computer user, we have to take good care of our laptop by knowing how to prevent laptop battery failure. Although batteries of laptops are replaceable, these are not just like triple type batteries which only cost less. Laptop batteries cost 50 to 100 dollars depending on the brand and model of the laptop. Taking care of the laptop battery is like saving 50 to 100 dollars from our budget. The common causes of laptop battery failure are mostly associated with the malpractice of using the computer. In fact, the following information is just simple but the most effective ways to prevent laptop battery failur...

Benefits of the OSI Model

OSI model, to understand it first it is needed to confirm the direction in which data travels. Normally, the data travels from the top layer (application layer), accesses and then crosses the network, and finally reaches the network destination. This process is called encapsulation. If you are in the destination end, data travels from the physical layer and moves up to pass the data to the appropriate application on the other end. Thus, the data travels from the bottom layer. This process is called un-encapsulation. It is important to understand the logical order of use of the OSI model. We start with the application layer, from where the application data passes down through the various elements that make up the OSI model. The OSI model was not designed as an actual component that makes network communication occur rather it is designed as a model for vendors to design various elements that allow internet working to function with different vendors. Benefits of OSI Model The OSI model...

The Best Wireless Gaming Mouse

Many of today’s wireless gaming mice are just as responsive as their wired counterparts. Of course, you have to pay more for that wire-free functionality—up to $50 to $100 more—but many gamers agree the price is worth it. With a wireless gaming mouse, a cord never gets in your way, and you can take it wherever you want to play—from your desk to the couch, or even your friend’s house. If you ever miss the old-school way, many of these come with a cord you can plug in. What to Look for in a Wireless Gaming MousePerhaps more than any other gaming accessory, good design is critical for a wireless gaming mouse. We’re not talking about good looks (although those are nice). We’re talking about ergonomics.The design of your mouse determines how good your hand and arm will feel throughout gameplay. This is important even if you play for just a few hours, but it’s absolutely critical for marathon gamers. You need a lightweight mouse with ...

Star Topology

Star Topology In star topology, multiple devices are connected to a central connection point known as hub or switch. Devices are attached to the hub by using either copper cables or fiber optic cables. Star networks provide a cost-effective method for sharing information between different users. Star topology can be used in airline reservation counters and small business offices where employees want an access to common applications and files. Basic Structure of Star Topology Each device is connected point-to-point to a central device which is either a hub or switch. Hub manages and controls all the functions of the network. It also acts as a multi port repeater for the data flow. Hub is used to connect segments of LAN and contains multiple ports. Hubs can be passive or active. Passive hubs are used as a connection point which routes all the traffic towards the devices. It does not amplify or regenerate the signals. They amply take all of the packets they receive on a single port an...

Upgrading the Memory

Upgrading the Memory The memory of the system must be upgraded to increase the speed of the system. The memory is upgraded either by changing the previous RAM or by adding one more RAM with the previous RAM. The installation of a new RAM depends on the number of the free available memory slots on the motherboard. If the user wants to add a memory, then it is recommended to use the memory of the same FSB as of the existing one. Before installing a new RAM, check the type of RAM for mounting on the motherboard. The new RAM should match with the configuration of the previous RAM and should be supported by motherboard and processor. To upgrade the memory of the system: 1. Shutdown the computer and disconnect the power cable from SMPS and all the peripheral devices attached to it. 2. Get rid of the system case. 3. Wear an anti-static wristband or any other static control device before touching any of the computer components. 4. ...

Different Types of External Memory

Different types of external memory Besides the normal internal hard drives various types of external memory are available for easy expansion and storage of data. Discussed below are different types of external memory which makes data storage very easy and convenient. External Hard Drives One very commonly used variety of an external memory is an external hard drive. These days most external hard drives come with a USB connectivity thus making it easy to connect with the computer. Another important advantage of USB connectivity is better data transfer speed. Commonly the drivers for the external hard drives are auto detected and installed thus it is quickly accessible for use as a storage device. Flash Drives The distinctive varieties of external memory that a good number of individuals use and are well-known with are handy Flash drives. These small Flash drives store information by means of non-volatile memory which implies data will remain on the flash drive even when the d...

Network Selection Criteria

Network Selection Criteria A network is selected on the basis of network criteria. During the network selection, it is important to consider these criteria for improving network functionality. These factors are: • Network Performance • Network Reliability • Network Security Network Performance While designing a network, it is necessary to consider the need of building the network. The network should provide the desired performance. Organizations may need to upgrade their networks as per the new techniques. Hence, it is important that the network should not be permanent, it has to be flexible. The network should be designed in such a way that it is possible to expand or upgrade the network systems in future. Network performance can be measured by analyzing the request and response time. Request time includes the time that a message can take to travel from one computer to another computer within a network. Response time is the elapsed time between a request and t...

History of Computers-From First Generation Computer to Super Computer

The word "Computer" has evoked great myth over the past many years and these operating systems are considered among highly privileged and intelligent members of our society. Computers is used in many fields, like architect use computers for interior design, students use computers for studying difficult subjects, police department use computers to know more information about criminals and to track them down. At the same time computers are also used for inventory, banking transaction, financial accounting etc. Computers are also used in weather forecasting, agriculture etc.   First Generation Computer: The First Generation of digital computers were developed in the early 1940s and were using vacuum tube logic circuitry. The speed of this computer was measured in milliseconds (thousands of a second). The size of the computers was very big, failure rate was very high & reliability was very low. It had no external storage, internal memory was very limited & only machine lang...

Types of Computers

Types of Computers Computers perform a vast range of functions. Some computers are so powerful that hundreds or even thousands of users can use them at a single instant. Computers have different types of capabilities and are of different sizes. Classification of computers is based on the usage, speed, and size of computers. There are four main types of computers, namely Microcomputers, Minicomputers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers. Microcomputer Microcomputer, also known as a personal computer, is a digital computer that works on a microprocessor. Microcomputers are the most common types of computers. Microcomputers are small machines designed for individual users. Average people who have a basic knowledge of computers can use microcomputers. Individuals in homes and offices are major users of the microcomputer. It is an inexpensive computer that performs tasks such as word processing, desktop publishing, and accounting. Microcomputer is also useful for running spreadsheets and data...

Transport Layer of the OSI Model

Transport Layer of the OSI Model This is the fourth layer of the OSI model. The data unit at this layer is known as segment. The network layer deals with source-to-destination delivery of individual packets and does not recognize any relationship between them. On the other hand, the transport layer ensures that the entire message reaches in order and handles error control and flow control at the source-to destination level. Transport layer receives data from the session layer. It divides the data into segments with each segment having its own header and passes these segments to the network layer. At the receiver side, transport layer receives packets from the network layer. It detaches headers from them and then reassembles the segments into original message and passes that message to the session layer. Service-point Addressing - There may be number of programs running at the same time on a computer. For this purpose, source-to-destination delivery should also include process-to-pro...

Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables (UTP)

Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables (UTP) A pair of unshielded wires wound around each other is known as Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables (UTP). An UTP is a pair of copper wires would by plastic insulators. Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables (UTP) is the cheapest form of cables available for networking purposes. It is highly used in Local Area Network (LAN) environments. The installation cost of the cable is very cheap as it is easy to install. Electronic Industries Association (EIA), Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) are the organizations which have defined standards for Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables (UTP) cabling. The ANSI/EIA/ The 568 commercial Building Wiring Standards define various types of cables to be used for various purposes. The cables are divided into different categories namely: Category 1 - Defines a traditional UTP cable. It is designed to carry only voice and not data. This type of cable is not recommended for ne...

Texting: 25 Secret Drug Lingo & Slang Used in Communication

Are you searching for the real secret lingo and slang terms people are likely to use when they are referring to drugs or any other substance through texting? 25 secret texting lingos are listed on this page as a reference for deciphering mysterious codes that have an important -- or dangerous -- meaning. Kids especially use secret texting lingos and slang to communicate on the topic so others will not easily know what they are talking about. While they are often ahead of the game in exchanging messages not interpreted by the average person, you have a handy tool in keeping up with their secret codes by obtaining information such as this. Report Decodes Meaning in Texts Lingos In a CNN report, it was discovered that "Scored 420. CUL8R" is an invitation to literally "get high" on pot.  420 is the common texting number for pot. It is further recognized that texting a number sign followed by a string of Z's is a way teens create smoking a joint on screen: #ZZZZZ...

Troubleshooting Microprocessors

Troubleshooting Microprocessors Troubleshooting microprocessor techniques solve the problems that arise due to the improper functioning of the microprocessor. The general problems that arise from the microprocessor are overheating and slow processing.   Overheating A Microprocessor produces heat while processing the data. The microprocessor also overheats when it is performing beyond the recommended speed. Overheating can cause permanent damage to the microprocessor. Adequate cooling devices such as a processor fan must be installed to cool down the microprocessor. To solve the problem of overheating of a microprocessor: • Check that the processor fan is installed and functioning properly. • Ensure that the heat sink compound is properly in contact with the processor and the heat sink assembly and is not dried up. • Check the jumper settings on the motherboard and the BIOS settings to see that the Microprocessor is not overclocked. • Check that the vol...

Tipard vs Aimersoft vs 1Step DVD Copy

Tipard Founded in 2008, Tipard Studio specializes in digital video and audio software, and user friendly multimedia software. They offer several different products that are sold in over 160 different countries.

Facts About Michael Dell and the Dell Brand of Computers

Image Credit To everyone, Michael Dell’s rise to fame and fortune is an unusual youngster’s story tinkering at business at a young age. But just how it all began and what are the driving forces that ultimately led this famous man behind the best selling computer brand? 1. Michael Dell was born 23 February 1965, to an orthodontist father and stockbroker mother in Houston, Texas. Her mother’s affiliation may have been a factor that had driven him early at business. 2. At age 12 he started into business by forming a direct marketing company which offered national stamp auction through mail. He earned $2,000 from this venture, quite a sum of money for his age. 3. His first computer was an Apple II computer he got from Radio Shack which he dismantled just to know how it worked on the inside. 4. He was 16 when he got the concept of selling subscriptions to the Houston Post during the summer. He got his prospects list from marriage and mortgage applications learning t...

Motherboard Modern Form Factor

Motherboard Modern Form Factor Modern Form factor consists of ATX, Micro ATX, Flex ATX, Mini ITX and NLX form factors. These types of form factors are used in all modern computers. The latest motherboards are based on this architecture. The ATX and the NLX form factors were invented by Intel. The micro ATX is a smaller variant of the ATX form factor.  Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) Form Factor Intel invented the ATX form factor in the year 1995. ATX and mini ATX form factors are most popular and has many of the best features of LPX and AT form factors. The ATX form factor is not compatible with the LPX or AT form factors. As a result, new system cases and power supplies were designed to match this form factor. These cases and power supplies have now become quite common and become popular now a days. The ATX form factor makes it easier to install and upgrade motherboards. This type of form factor supports maximum 7 slots. The main advantage is the single internal power suppl...

Application Layer of the OSI Model

Application Layer of the OSI Model The seventh layer of the OSI model. It provides a means for the user to access information on the network using an application. It also supports services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer and shared database management. Services provided by application layer are: Network Virtual Terminal - It is a software version of physical terminal. Using this software the user can log on to a computer that is remotely connected on the network. The application layer emulates a terminal at the remote host. When the user's computer wants to communicate with the remote host, it communicates with the virtual terminal that converts the data in the intermediary format used by the virtual terminal and sends it to the remote host. After processing the data the remote host replies to the terminal in the reverse order. File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM) - Using this application user can access files (to make changes) in a remote host. It a...

Shielded Twisted Pair Cables

Shielded Twisted Pair Cables A pair of cables twisted around each other forms a twisted pair cable. A number of twisted pair wires are placed inside a protective sheath to form a cable. Whenever signal passes through a wire, an electromagnetic field is generated around it called as a loop. When other wires come into the loop, the signals pass onto them. Thus, the signals of both the wires get jumbled with each other. This phenomenon is known as crosstalk. To avoid this, two wires are wounded across each other where one wire acts as a ground and absorbs the electromagnetic field of the other wire. This reduces the problem of crosstalk which is an internal noise. There are two types of twisted pair cables: • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables 1OBaseT is one of various physical medium standard defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) used for LAN. 10 stands for 10 Mbps, the data transmission speed of cable...

ISDN Modem Vs. DSL Modem

ISDN Modem Vs. DSL Modem ISDN Modem Integrated Services Digital Networks(I|SDN) is a set of international communication standard for transmitting digital data over a telephone line. It enables to send data, voice, and video over digital telephone lines or over an ordinary telephone wire. It transmits data at the speed of 5 Kbps. ISDN needs equipment called ISDN adapter to perform conversion between the digital sign as and analog signals. This ISDN adapter is physically and functionally similar to the modem. The ISDN modem can be an internal or external modem. ISDN modem provides high-speed Internet access. ISDN needs modems at both the transmission ends. Therefore, your ISDN access provider also needs an ISDN modem. DSL Modem You can connect to the Internet using the standard modem, LAN connection, ISDN connection or the Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connection. DSL connection is high-speed connection than allows the phone w...

1ink.com vs. 4inkjets vs. Inkfarm.com: Which Ink and Toner Site is Best?

1ink Owner Roland Davoudikia founded in 2001 with a simple goal of providing its customers with an advanced and secure shopping environment for high quality, low-cost printer supplies. 1ink has been supplying major businesses, organizations and consumers throughout the United States with the best quality remanufactured and compatible inkjet cartridges and laser toners for a large selection of printer models. The company has grown exponentially since its inception thanks to thousands of customer referrals. Features 1ink offers the following features: 1ink is one of several online discount ink cartridges stores that offer ink printer products for Xerox Phaser machines. 1ink customers can get answers to Frequently Asked Questions about things like payment options, discounts, product availability and guarantees. You'll also find a Troubleshooting section that addresses a range of printer cartridge issues. Customers can take advantage of 1ink's coupon codes and even greate...

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer

Advantages of Computer Computerization helps automate various functions, tasks or works that is hard to do manually. It helps you present your data in an organize and easy way. Regardless of how complicated and how long the computation is, computer is always able to compute and calculate the given data. Computers helps lessen time consumed when doing a complicated task and it makes your work a lot easier. Its speed and reliability can enhance your work performance. Computers use can serve plenty of purpose depending on one’s need. It can be your entire library, a reference book, storage of personal and business information and as your communication tool. You can send mails and contact your family and friends who are living from distant location through the use of various computer search engines. It can solve problems faster that the ability of a human being. There is too much useful information in the internet. You can simply browse when you want to search for job opportu...

Single Node Topology

Single Node Topology Topology provides different configurations that are used to create a network. A network is a group of devices connected by communication paths to exchange information and share resources. While connecting computers together to form a network, the user needs to consider the structure, layout and the cabling requirements. A network can be created by using point-to-point connection or multipoint connection. In a point-to-point connection, only two devices are connected to each other. The user can use a point-to-point connection to transfer data from local network to a remote network through a dedicated line. Examples of point-to-point connection are microwave, satellite and television network. In multipoint connection, many devices share the connection and are called as multi-drop connection. Topology is a pattern of computer devices and describes the way in which these devices are connected. Topologies can be physical or logical. Physical topology refers to the ac...

Narrow SCSI Vs Wide SCSI

Narrow SCSI Vs Wide SCSI The Narrow SCSI and Wide SCSI are SCSI variations which determine the number of devices to be connected to the SCSI Port. Both Narrow SCSI and Wide SCSI are discussed in details below along with other SCSI variations. SCSI Variations The different variations of SCSI specify the number of devices that can be connected, the bus speed and the bus width at which the SCSI devices communicate with each other. The bus speed specifies the amount, of data that can be transferred in one second. This bus width is the amount of data that the cable can accommodate. Narrow SCSI The Narrow SCSI transmits data over an 8-bit bus. This uses the 50-pin connector cable as the A cable. A cable is the standard 8-bit cables used with SCSI-1 and SCSI-2 device. If you use Narrow SCSI device you must ensure that the devices are set with SCSI ID less than 7. Wide SCSI The wide SCSI transmits data over a 16-bit bus. The Wide SCSI uses a 68-pin connector cable known as the P cable, ...

Fact About Mainframe Computers

Large computers are called mainframe. The term mainframe as a single word is used as a designation of large-scale computers, in contrast to a microcomputer, minicomputer, personal computer or workstation. The term mainframe comes from the use of “frame” as a device to hold electronics (rack is also frequently used), and the frame holding the electronics. The UNIVAC 1, optimized for business data processing, was an early mainframe. Mainframe computers process data at high speed, deliberate in the millions of information per second. They are very exclusive, estimate millions of dollars in some cases. Mainframe designed for multiple users and process vast amounts of data quickly. Banks, insurance companies, manufacturers, mail-order companies, and airlines are typically users. Originally, the mainframe of a computer system was the cabinet that hoisted its central processor and main memory. It is, therefore, separate from the peripheral devices (disks, printers, tape drives, et...

To WEP or Not to WEP: Is WPA Really Better Than WEP?

Not all of us are networking experts. For some of us the whole concept of securing a wireless network connection is like reading greek. Well you know what? You don't need to have a degree in computer science to understand how wireless security in a wireless network works, or to understand the difference between WEP, WPA or WPA2. If you know some basic knowledge about it, that should be enough to help you set up a secured wireless network. Let me start by explaining a bit about networking. A network is basically when you have a group of computers that are working together with the intention of sharing information. Technically there are different types of networks, and they are categorized by either topography, network architecture, scale and connection method. If you wish to learn more about networking and types of networking you can always check wikipedia for further information. What we are concerned here is the network that requires a router and more specifically the wireless part ...

How to Extend the Life of Your Desktop Computer and Save Money

Computers represent an expensive investment. There are numerous pros and cons to buying a laptop or a desktop, but desktops have one particular trait that few laptops can compete with: modularity. Parts can easily be swapped out of your desktop PC with regularity, and they are often less specialized and less expensive. Online search engines are there to help you find what you need at every internet computer parts website (why should they make it difficult for you to spend your money?). The truth is, most people buy a new computer not necessarily because they need one, but because they don't realize there is an inexpensive part that can be purchased for a fraction of the price of a new computer. Maybe their computer has a bottleneck such as slow startup speed, lack of space, or other issues. But, before buying a new computer, you should look and see what is available to supplement your old one. My Personal Computer I purchased an HP Pavilion D4000y PC in 2005. The computer was one of ...

Different Types of Motherboard Expansion Slots

 Different types of motherboard expansion slots There are several types of motherboard slots. This article is an effort to study few of the most general and elucidate their uses and differences. There are several types of motherboard expansion slots, but all of them have one object in general: They permit you to add on extension cards into your system and augment its efficiency. Though motherboards normally are inbuilt with wired networking, on-board sound and video, inserting a committed extension card will outcome in this card being utilized as a replacement for on-board hardware present in the motherboard and thus can augment your PC's video playback, gaming, or sound presentation. Expansion cards can also endow with fresh efficacy, such as permitting your PC to incarcerate TV signs or contact a wireless network. PCI Express PCIe or PCI Express is the latest standard for expansion cards on PCs. PCIe is intended to substitute previous versions AGP and PCI. PCI Express presen...

Form Factor of Motherboard

Form Factor of Motherboard Form Factor of Motherboard refers to its physical shape, layout and positioning of components on it. It also determines the type of system case it will fit into. Some motherboards that have the same function ability can be packaged into different form factors. The only major difference between such motherboards will be the form factor. The Motherboard can be classified into three from factors:- 1. Obsolete Form Factor 2. Modern Form Factor 3. Proprietary form factor  Obsolete Form Factor Obsolete form factors consist of Advanced Technology (AT), Baby AT and Low Profile Extended (LPX) form factors. IBM computers used the AT form factor motherboards and the LPX fond factor was mostly used by Western Digital. The size of these motherboards was very large and was used in the earlier days. Nowadays this form factor is not used and is replaced by the ATX and micro ATX form factors. Baby AT Form Factor Baby AT Form Factor is very much similar to the o...

Wondershare, Xilisoft & Aimersoft: DVD Ripper Software Compared

What Should You Use to Rip DVDs?  The sheer amount of choice regarding what program you should use for ripping your DVDs can be intimidating. Fortunately, most of these programs let you try them out over a free trial period. Finding the perfect software for your needs will depend on what you want in a ripper in terms of speed, quality, and features. Wondershare  Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate is a higher priced piece of software that has a large amount of extra features. You can try out the free trial for Windows or Mac, and the software itself costs around 60 dollars. The software has a 90 day money back guarantee that comes with it as well. Features -30x Conversion Speed (APEXTRANS technology) Wondershare claims to have a conversion speed over 30 times faster than many other standard converters. -Convert to 158+ formats Wondershare has a truly massive database of potential formats that you can use for getting your DVD video compatible with the device or prog...

How to Maintain a Computer Server

A computer server is the brain of a network. It is responsible for vital functions such as communicating and exchanging data with other servers in other networks. Basically, a network without a server is like a person walking around without a brain. A computer server must be handled properly so that I will continue working at its optimum level. Here are some of the best methods in maintaining a computer server. Store the Server in a Clean, Air-conditioned Room A clean and dust free, air-conditioned room is the most ideal place to store your computer server. This is because even small amount of dust on the server can damage its integrity and make it vulnerable to malfunction. A computer server must always be kept clean in order for it to function properly. When a computer server is clean, it will work on its optimum performance, allowing the exchange of gigabytes of data efficiently. Keeping a server clean also saves money as server stored in a clean environment last longer than comp...

Development and Types of Computers

There are many computers that followed each other and were creating new pieces of brilliance from B.C. to this generation. Different people created different types of computers and here are the list of typical old computer names: DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER TYPES YEAR     Abacus B.C. Slide rule 1620 Pascal’s computer 1642 Leibnitz’s computer 1690 Jacquards Loom 1801 Difference engine 1822 Analytical engine 1833 1. Abacus: This was one of the earliest counting devices. It was developed between 1000 and 300 B.C. and used a combination of b...

Languages of the World Computer Keyboards for Specific Languages

Languages to Communicate and Computer Keyboards While some languages are being fairly recently invented such as the ‘Klingon language,’ which is the fan-built language based upon a fictitious race of aliens from the Star Trek universe, they are still considered to be valid languages. Klingon language is spoken and taught, has a written form and a syntax. Despite some irregular grammatical rules, it is neologismistic (new words enter common usage) and thus, it evolves. It truly can be designated as a ‘living language.’ It is also a difficult language with its alveolar consonants (formed in the back of the throat) and retroflex palatals (tongue curled backward and pressed against roof of mouth.) The only Klingon language phrase I ever learned were several words of greeting and inquiry, and one general insult or affront to the person you are addressing. I doubt if I could spell it or even pronounce it today but it literally means “Your mother has a sm...

Computers 101: An Overall Guide to Understanding and Building Computers: The Motherboard

    This is part two of a series of computer articles designed to supply the average user with enough information to understand their own computer. Before you read any of these articles, it would be a good idea to read the introduction: knoji.com/an-introduction-to-understanding-computers/       This article consists of three parts. Part one being about components of the motherboard, part two being about installing a standard ATX desktop motherboard, and part three having facts about motherboards. ( It is impractical to try to memorize everything in this article at once. It would be a better idea to bookmark it and come back when necessary. )       If you are planning on building your own computer, than the first thing you will select is the motherboard; also called the mobo, system board, mainboard, and logic board. The motherboard you plan on purchasing, or already have, will play a role in every other component you can install. Here are so...

Magic DVD Copier vs WinX DVD Copy vs 1Click DVD Copy: DVD Copy and Backup Software Reviewed

Magic DVD Copier Magic DVD Copier offers one of the fastest DVD copiers and rippers on the market. This software is easy to use and anyone can use it to make exact copies of a DVD. Magic DVD Copier has a Windows version and a Mac version. Magic DVD Copier Features Magic DVD Copier is an easy and powerful software tool that allows users to copy DVDs to your hard drive without any loss of quality. You can also copy DVD or burn a DVD to DVD 9 or compress a DVD 9 to a DVD 5. Just insert the DVD and make a copy within 20 to 60 minutes that can then be played on your computer or home DVD player. Their software is fast and easy to use. A few main features of Magic DVD include: Compress a DVD 9 movie to a blank DVD 5. The ability to copy a DVD movie to a blank DVD in 1:1 mode. The ability to select the content you want to copy. Copy the main DVD movie in entirety or specified titles. Copy DVD movie from DVD to the hard drive or burn from the hard drive to a DVD. Remove all DVD re...

USB Decoration Case Modding for USB Flash Drives

Modified Cases on USB Flash Drives A Flash Drive is a USB memory data storage device that is small, removable and read/writable. Replacing the floppy disks of old, these devices hold thousands of times more data, are very robust and long lasting owing to the materials used and the lack of moving parts. The ubiquity of its functional design lends itself to modding (modifying) the case, something that floppy disks by constraint of their design could never have endured. Even though nothing ‘moves’ in a flash drive during use, it is still called a ‘drive.’ It could be called a ‘flash RAM’ but somehow the persistence of using the word ‘drive’ as in the ‘hard disk drive’ storage device persists. Just like magnetic media (floppy disks, etc.) flash drives are subject to a finite number of read/write cycles before failure although the number of uses is far greater than any floppy media of course. Life Expectancy of a USB Flash Driv...

Samsung RC420 Laptop Review

The RC420 is a relatively new budget laptop by Samsung. Stated by Samsung as an 'Essential' class notebook, the RC420 is a laptop meant for regular home or office use. Specifications: Windows 7 Home Premium Intel Core i5-2410M CPU @ 2.30 GHz 4GB of RAM 14" HD LCD display Nvida GeForce GT520 Optimus graphics card with 1GB of standalone graphic memory 1.3 MP webcam Aesthetics The RC420 measures 345.9mm (length) by 238mm (breadth) by 31.4 - 34.8mm (height when the screen is closed), and weighs 2.35kg. It is nowhere near as slim or light as new ultrabooks like Samsung's own Series 9 laptops, but is light enough to be carried around comfortably, and does not feel too bulky either, thanks in part to its slightly tapered end. The RC420 comes in a choice of a few colours, some of which do look better than others. The overall feel of the laptop is sturdy and well-built, with the surface not attracting too many fingerprints. User experience The Windows 7 Home Premium softwar...

Client/Server Configuration and Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model

Client/Server Configuration and Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model Client/Server Configuration Client/Server is a configuration of the computer network that includes a server and one or more clients. The client manages the local resources that are used by the user such as monitor, keyboard, CPU and peripherals. The server is a more powerful system which manages shared resources such as databases, printers, resources communication links or high powered-processors and handles all the incoming requests for its shared resources. Server is a centralized and dedicated entity which manages data, printers or network traffic depending upon the type of the server. The server must run a server program to share its resources. In a network, one server can be used for multiple purposes or you can have multiple servers for specific applications. Many programs are built into the Operating System (OS) which can be used for the sharing of resources and for other purposes. Client is a computer on...

Presentation Layer of the OSI Model

Presentation Layer of the OSI Model This is the sixth layer of the OSI model. This layer deals with syntax and semantics of the data exchanged between two devices. It transforms the data in the format that will be accepted by the application layer. Presentation layer receives data from application layer. It adds header to the data and passes data to the session layer. At the receiver side, the presentation layer receives data from session layer. It detaches header from the data and passes data to the application layer. Responsibilities of presentation layer are: Translation - The running programs on the computer exchange data in the form of character strings and numbers. Before transmitting, the information should be converted to bits format. The presentation layer handles interoperability between different encoding systems used by different computer systems. At the sending device, presentation layer changes the information from its sender-dependent format into a common format that ...

Ring Topology

Ring Topology In Ring topology, each device is connected to adjacent devices forming a circle. Data flows in only one direction, clockwise or anti-clockwise. Each device in the ring topology acts as a repeater. It amplifies the signal transmission and transmits it to the next device. Basic Structure of Ring Topology All devices are connected to each other in the form of a closed loop like ring. Each device has only two neighbors for communication purpose one is upstream and another is downstream. Data travels through many points before reaching the destination which makes it inefficient network compared to a star network. For example, consider a ring network having eight devices. If device 1 wants to transmit data to device 3, data must travel from device 1, through device 2 and then to its destination at device 3. The ring topology is used to implement the token ring network at 4 or 16 Mbps. In token ring network, a special signal or a small message called Token is continually pas...

Thepiratebay.org (Review)

A lot of people might be familiar with this site but some people are new and do not know how to download use the website for its main purpose. I usually see people who comment on a certain download page of the site asking on how to use the .torrent file, some people would say that there media players can’t play the .torrent file. Thepiratebay.org is one of the largest online downloading websites in the world, with millions of servers around the world. You can find almost everything, from games, music, movies and software installers. How do you use it? Some people just think that it’s a direct click and download thing, generally it’s like that but it has a little bit of a twist on how to use it. You have got to first download a microtorrent software or any software which allows you to use a .torrent file. You can also use vuze and many more software. Downloading is simple, just go to the site and simply search for the things you want to download, using the filters w...

Logitech B100 Optical Mouse Review

The Logitech B100 Optical USB Mouse is an inexpensive, high quality wired mouse from Logitech designed to provide accuracy while using the computer without having to pay a large sum of money. Selling for only $11.30 on Amazon, this USB mouse is one of the cheapest available online. The mouse is cleverly designed so that is ambidextrous, and left and right handed people alike will have no problem using this mouse. No drivers have to be installed once the USB cord is plugged in, something that only Logitech provides, and helps keep things simple when setting up a computer for the first time, or for elderly computer users. The cord for the mouse is quite long, actually reaching around 1.8 metres, so the distance from the computer tower to the desktop should not be a huge issue. The optical mouse measures in 800 dpi, or dots per inch, making it a highly precise instrument and meaning that the cursor will not skip or lag across the screen. While this mouse does not have any special featu...

Flash Memory

Flash Memory Flash memory is the high-density device and is a non-volatile memory. Flash memory is fast in reading writing data. This is because it writes data in chunks or blocks. Flash memory is an electrically re-programmable device. The contents from the flash memory are erased in blocks and not in bytes. The block size can range from 256 bytes to 16 KB. Flash memory can replace hard in portable computers. In this context, flash memory is available as a PC card that you can plug into the PCMCIA slot. PC BIOS chip in the system is the flash memory. Other flash memory products are PCMCIA memory cards and memory cards for video game systems. Some of the latest memory cards include Multimedia card, Secure Digital, CompactFlash, Memory Stick, xD-Picture Card, SmartMedia. In recent times the price of Flash memory has dropped significantly and thus people are using Flash memory often. Memory cards a very common type of Flash Memory used precisely in cell phones and is available in a w...

Coaxial Cables (Also Known As Coax)

Copper Medium There are different mediums available for transferring data over the network. Data is transferred through copper wires by converting them into appropriate electrical signals. Copper wires are the cheapest mode of cable available. There are various types of copper transmission medium available depending on the size of networks and the individual needs. The types of cables used for networking are: • Coaxial cables (Also known as Coax) • Twisted pair Cables (TP) 1. Shielded Twisted pair (STP) 2. Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP) Coaxial Cables Coaxial cables consist of a solid copper core surrounded by an Insulator mainly made up of Poly VinylChloride PVC or Teflon. PVC is a plastic made from the chemical vinyl chloride. It is surrounded by a mesh like ground wire called the Draiding or shielding and an outer cover known as a sheath. The insulator acts as a barrier between the braiding and inner core. If the insulator is absent, the shield and the core may ...

How to Perform a Loopback Test with Windows HyperTerminal

How to perform a Loopback Test with Windows HyperTerminal Network allows transfer of data from one computer to another. The data transmitted flows through various physical devices and finally reaches the intended destination. The data will not be transmitted if any device on the transmission path is not working properly. Various troubleshooting tools can be used to identify the problem. The user can also locate the source that caused the problem and many a times also troubleshoot a problem.   Physical Checking by various tools Network may stop functioning due to various reasons such as damaged cables, faulty NICs and wrong IP configuration settings. You can use the different tools available to diagnose and troubleshoot the problem. Different tools are used to measure the different network parameters. There are various third party tools available for checking the network. These tools can either be software or hardware tools. HyperTerminal is a program that allows you to connec...

ComboInk vs 101inks.com vs Print Country: Ink Cartridge Suppliers Compared

ComboInk About The California base company, ComboInk is an online store that specializes in low cost printer ink jet cartridges and laser toner. They carry the top brands in ink for laser printers for a number of printers including: HP Brother Canon Epson Lexmark Apollo Apple Compaq Dell  IBM Kodak and more  ComboInk also sells photo papers, cables and other accessories for printing.    Website Customers can order through the website as a guest or they can create an account that will securely store their information for their next purchase. Customers can pay with a credit card, e-check or with their PayPal account. ComboInk offers a 15% discount if you sign up for their email list which offers even more discounts and deals throughout the year. Finding your ink cartridge is simple using the ComboInk website which is very user-friendly and features a simple, clean design.  Choose Your Brand Chose Your Series or cartridge number. Then ...

Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP

In practice, OSI is a de-jure (according to law) standard and, TCP/IP is a de-facto (in reality) standard. The focus in the TCP/IP world is on agreeing on a protocol standard which can be made to work in diverse heterogeneous networks. The focus in the OSI world has always been more on the standard than the implementation of the standard. The OSI reference model was devised before the protocols were implemented. This ordering means that the model was not biased toward one particular set of protocols, which made it quite general. The down side of this generalization was standard became quite complicated to implement and handle. Because of the complications OSI never gained the popularity though it was implemented in several organizations. Nevertheless, since as a standard it was a much generalized one, it has been used as a reference model against which one can make comparison. With the TCP/IP the reverse was true: the protocols came first, and the model was just a description of th...

Dual In-Line Memory Module (DIMM)

Dual In-Line Memory Module (DIMM) DIMM package is also a small circuit board that contains the memory chips. The difference between the SIMM and DIMM is that DIMM is a 168-pin package. The data widths of the DIMM packages are 64-bit, 72-bit, or 80-bit. A 168-pin DIMM package is available in the SDRAM or FPM DRAM chips. A 168-pin DIMM package has 84 pins on each side of the package. This type of pin configuration helps in placing the DIMM package on the memory socket. The latest computers use a DIMM package. Its pin configuration does not support the motherboard of old computers. A DIMM package is available in 8MB, 16MB, 32MB, and 64MB sizes. It supports 3.3V and 5.0V of electricity. Check the motherboard manual before installing the DIMM memory module system. Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module (SODIMM) Laptops and notebook systems use this package. It is the smallest version of the DIMM. The SODIMM package has a notch at the bottom of the circuit board. This notch helps ...

Components of a Motherboard

Components of a Motherboard  Motherboard contains slots, sockets and connectors for connecting various devices. It contains slots for attaching RAM, graphic cards and any other device, and sockets for attaching the microprocessor. It contains a super I/O chip, bus slots for connecting various peripheral devices. A CMOS battery is mounted on the motherboard to keep the system updated with latest date and time. An on-board CPU voltage regulator is provided to regulate power supply to the processor. You can configure the motherboard using jumpers. Connectors The different connectors on the motherboard enable connection of different devices. The different connectors on the motherboard are: • System panel connector (1) - Accommodates different front panel system functions such as system power LED, hard disk LED. • USB headers (2) - Functions as connectors for USB module that can provide two additional USB ports, if the USB ports are inadequate. • Digital audio conne...

Mesh Topology

Mesh Topology In Mesh topology, each device is connected to each other. A device can send data to all the devices in the network. Data sent by the device can take any possible paths to reach the destination. Basic Structure of Mesh Topology A mesh topology, every device is connected to each and every node in the network with many redundant interconnections at least two paths to and from every node. There are two types of mesh topologies, full mesh and partial mesh. In full mesh topology, each device is connected directly to each other. In partial mesh topology, some of the devices are connected to all the others, but there are some devices which do not exchange data with all. So they are connected only to those with which they communicate most of the time. It is less expensive and less redundant compared to full mesh topology. This topology is useful where connections are easily and frequently broken. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology Mesh topology is not used commonly...

How to Perform a Loopback Test with Windows HyperTerminal

How to perform a Loopback Test with Windows HyperTerminal Network permits transmission of data from one PC to another. The data broadcasted flows via a range of physical appliances and eventually reaches the anticipated destination. The information will not be broadcasted if any appliance on the communication path is not functioning correctly. A variety of troubleshooting devices can be applied to recognize the problem. The user can also trace the basis that initiated the problem and a lot of a times also work on the problem. Physical Checking by various tools Network may stop functioning due to various reasons such as damaged cables, faulty NICs and wrong IP configuration settings. You can use the different tools available to diagnose and troubleshoot the problem. Different tools are used to measure the different network parameters. There are various third party tools available for checking the network. These tools can either be software or hardware tools. HyperTerminal is a progr...

Local Area Network (LAN) Terminology

Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network that spans over a small area. It connects computers and workstations to share data and resources such as printers or faxes. Local Area Network (LAN) is restricted to a small area such as home, office or college The institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) in the United States of America produced a series of standards for LANs called the IEEE 802 standards. Local Area Network (LAN) Terminology Terminology is the set of terms which are used to define elements in a particular topic. LAN terminology is related to the terms included in LAN. The LAN terminologies are: Central Processor - It controls and processes data. CPU executes the instructions given by the user. CPU does not have interfaces, main memory or peripherals. Microcomputer - Microcomputer are small and single user computers. When microcomputer was developed, its speed and functionality were limited. But today, very small machines are ...

Technology Take Over

Did you know that there are over 200 active social networking sites? Facebook, Myspace, Twitter; all of the social networks that now make it possible to have a relationship with someone without having to ever see that person face-to-face. Conversations are out the window because all you have to do is check someones status to see what they are up to or how they are feeling. There are sites to find classmates such as classmates.com with it's 50 million users and linkedin.com with it's 80 million users that helps you find other professionals. Lets all admit it, we are addicted to Social Networking. On Facebook, which as of July 2010 has more than 500 million users, you can talk to people, play games, including starting your own virtual farm, start your own mafia and even play Family Fued. There are plenty of people you can connect with such as people from high school, granted you may not want to associate yourself with those people if you didn't talk to them in school. Facebook has so m...

Bus Topology

Bus Topology In a bus topology, devices share a common backbone cable to send and receive data. A thick co-axial cable is used to connect all devices. Bus topology uses daisy chain scheme to add more devices in a network. In the daisy chain scheme, device 1 is connected to device 2; device 2 is connected to device 3. The first and last devices are connected to 50 ohm terminator resistor. Basic Structure of Bus Topology In bus topology, the server is connected at one end of the backbone cable and the other devices are connected at different positions along the backbone cable known as trunk. Terminator is placed at each end of the cable. It is used to remove unsent data from the cable if the destination device is faulty. Data is sent to all the devices along the cable. As the message arrives at each device, it checks the destination address, encoded in the message. If the address matches, it accepts the data. If the address does not match, the device ignores the data. At a time, only ...

Logitech Classic Keyboard 200 Review

The Logitech Classic Keyboard 200 is a basic keyboard model that is very inexpensive, with no bells or whistles installed. It performs no functions besides basic typing and data entry, and provides a lot of comfort while doing so. Selling for just around thirteen dollars on Amazon, this keyboard is ideal for anyone looking for a keyboard simply to type a lot on. Otherwise, it really performs no other tasks. It connects via a USB cord, which I found to be the perfect length from the floor to my desk, about 4 feet. Personally, I like the ability to trust the connection of a wired keyboard compared to a similar basic wireless keyboard. The keys are spaced out perfectly, and I find that my hands fit the keyboard really well. It’s really comfortable to type on for a long period of time, something that I value a lot in a keyboard. The major downside of this keyboard is the fact that it contains no extra features, like hot keys or volume controls. While I don’t find these necessa...

Intel Corporation: Facts About the Leading Brand in Microprocessors

Image Credit           Considered the world’s largest semiconductor chip maker based on revenue, Intel Corporation was founded way back 18 July 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation and is based in Santa Clara , California, USA. Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce originally wanted their company to be named Moore Noyce but being a homophone, sounding similar to “more noise” they resorted to call the company NM Electronics for almost a year until deciding to settle for Integrated Electronics. Intel by then was already patented as a trademark for a hotel chain so they were confined to buy the rights for the name before they have fully switched the name to Intel for short. Contrary to most speculations, Intel wasn’t taken from the word “intelligence” but actually the merging of the starting letters of the original company name, Integrated Electronics Corporation which gave rise to Intel Corporation. 1. Int...

Printer Ink & Toner Sites Compared: 4inkjets vs 123inkjets vs Inkfarm.com

Printer Ink and Toner Sites Are you tired of searching through sales flyers and traveling from store to store to get the best deal on your inkjet cartridges? Thanks to the Internet you don’t have to anymore. Instead you can join forces with the masses who shop for cheap ink cartridges online and in the comfort of their offices. Whether you’re looking for inkjet or laser toner cartridges or refill inks, online discount stores offer the best deals. Noted for their extensive inventories, competitive pricing and customer service, 4inkjets, 123inkjets and inkfarm are among the most popular printer ink and toner sites. Covered in this report: 4inkjets—Best Features 4inkjets accepts all payment methods and has competitive prices. 4inkjets carries a large selection of recycled ink cartridges. Best for: Individuals, families, businesses, community organizations, schools and non-profits. 123inkjets—Best Features All 123inkjets' products have a one-year guar...

Types of Portable PCs

Types of Portable PCs You can use portable PCs while traveling, at home or any other place of choice. Portable PCs are highly used in fields such as education, science and business, among* others. In a desktop PC the monitor, keyboard, mouse and speakers are attached separately and the components are easier to upgrade. The user can also add more RAM, bigger hard drive, or a new DVD drive. Desktop PC is very cheap as compared to laptops. The components are integrated in a laptops and it is very difficult to upgrade these components. It is also very difficult to add more Ram, bigger hard drive or a new DVD drive. Types of Portable PCs Portable PCs vary in size and features. One type of portable PC is laptop that is comparable to a briefcase in size and structure. Notebooks and subnotebooks are smaller versions of laptops; Palmtop is small enough that you can hold it in the palm of your hand. Laptops A Laptop is a portable computer that can perform all tasks carried out by a desktop ...

Types of DRAM

Types of DRAM Fast Page Mode DRAM (FPMDRAM) Standard DRAM is accessed through a technique called paging. Paging facilitates faster entrance to all the data inside a given row of memory by observing the row address the same and altering only the column. Memory that uses this modus operandi is called Page Mode or Fast Page Mode memory. This method was accepted on 32-bit wide memory systems on 486 processors but fell out of support on Pentiums because of their 64-bit wide memory widths. FPM DRAM is the Fast Page Mode DRAM. FPM DRAM sends the memory cell address only once to the processor for accessing the memory location for more than one time. Extended Data Out DRAM (EDO DRAM) Extended Data-Out (EDO) DRAM is a type of asynchronous DRAM. It is also known as Hyper Page Mode DRAM. It is faster than normal DRAM. This is because EDO DRAM starts fetching the data from the next cell before the previous process completes. Its approximate data transfer rate is 264 megabytes per second. It i...

RISC VS CISC

RISC VS CISC Microprocessors process the data using instructions. It retrieves the data and instructions from the RAM. RAM is a temporary storage area that the system uses to store data and instructions. The microprocessor has certain instructions built into it. These instructions are readily available to the microprocessor and it does not have to retrieve these instructions from the RAM. Microprocessors can be classified into two types, CISC and RISC, based on the number of instructions built into it. Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) The microprocessors using CISC architecture have many instructions built into it. This saves the processing time for performing tasks. The time is saved because the required instructions are available in the microprocessor itself and it does not have to retrieve the instructions from the program stored in the external memory, such as the RAM. The CISC architecture helps the microprocessor to speed up the execution of programs requiring instruc...

Epson vs Brother vs HP: Best Printers For Home Compared

Printers have continued to drop in price and develop more and more features as time goes on. Many printers these days have a number of impressive capabilities. Here are a couple of home printer brands shown side by side so you can see which works for you. Epson Epson produces a number of printers and “all in one” machines that have scanners and fax machines in them as well. They have quite a few free deals for shipping. Features Free Shipping for All Orders-You can get nearly any device shipped to you in the mail with no extra cost associated with it at all. This means there’s no real difference between going to the store to get it and getting it online, except at Epson it’ll likely be cheaper. There are some restrictions, such as only being for the 48 contiguous states. This includes paper and ink a well. Frequent Free Deals-There are a number of free deals at Epson through rebate, such as the one where you get a free replacement lamp for projectors yo...

Where Did Computer Bug, Debugged Computer Virus and Other Terms Come From?

When she removed the moth and put the panel back in place, the computer functioned properly again. Grace reported that the computer was debugged. The terms computer bug and debugged remain in use today. Computer virus Scientific American reports the history for the term "computer virus" comes from two separate origins. The first person to come up with the idea of a computer virus was John Von Newman. He wrote an article about computers being able to reproduce. The title of this paper was called "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata." Later, during the 1950s computer programmers at Bell Labs took Von Newman's idea and invented a computer game called "Code Wars." in this game bits of software called "organisms" would be sent to the player's computers. The object of "code Wars" was for the organisms to gain control of the opponent's computer. In 1986, Fred Cohen discovered the first mathematical algorithm for a computer virus. It was with this algorithm that a computer viru...

Latest Gadgets and Equipment: Asus Eb1006, Toshiba A665 Ultimate Laptops, Canon Pixma Mp640 Printer and Canon Sd400 Camera

Asus EB1006 desktop computer is one of the best desktop computers introduced by Asus. It is considered to be as an atom based, value oriented desktop personal computer. It is one of the most inexpensive desktop computers and its important specifications are discussed here in this article. • It uses Intel Atom N270 (1.6 GHz) processor. • This system has 1 GB DDR2 RAM which can be extended up to 2 GB. • Hard drive of 160 GB provided for the storage purpose. • It is best suited for basic computing tasks. • It was released in August 2009 and has great display quality due to its 4530-DX9 for XP home operating system. It has very nice keyboard and mouse. Cool and attractive design and very small design of Asus EB1006 makes it perfect to be fitted at a smaller place. It only supports only windows XP and VISTA home edition and maximum of 2 GB RAM which could have been better.  Toshiba A665 is one of the most exciting laptops introduced by Toshiba. It was in...

Session Layer of the OSI Model

Session Layer of the OSI model This is the fifth layer of the OSI model. This layer establishes, manages, synchronizes and terminates connection between the computers. It also sets up, coordinates and terminates interactions and dialogs between communicating devices. It provides either half duplex or full duplex service. Session layer receives data from the presentation layer. It adds header and synchronization bits to the data and passes data to the transport layer. At the receiver side, session layer receives data from transport layer. It detaches header and synchronization bits from the data and passes data to the presentation layer. Responsibilities of session layer are: Dialog Control - The session layer is responsible for setting up sessions between devices. It allows two devices to enter into dialog (communication process). These dialogs can take place either in half-dupplex or full duplex mode. Dialog control is implemented using a data token. The user that has the token is...

Where to Buy Old PC Games

Think back to the time before the digital age and before children all starting using cellphones – writing things down on paper was important. For gamers, this usually meant writing down CD keys. Before digital distribution, gamers would get all of their games in these large, shelf-hogging boxes that you have to go to the store to buy. Inside each box would be a CD, a manual, some advertisements, maybe an art book or map, and most importantly, the CD key. Unfortunately, the average gamer owns up to hundreds of games and most of them are likely to lose these games in one way or another, especially the older ones. Some truly exceptional titles have stood the test of time during the video game industry’s extensive career. It would simply suck if those games were lost forever, and until the internet’s emergence, lost games were truly gone. Online Digital Distribution Then the internet changed everything. At first, there were still no official channels to obtain old gam...

The Singularity; When Humanity Can Transcend It's Biological Limitations

What is singularity? Singularity is when a machine achieves intelligence on a human level. There are many scientists and futurists that believe in this theory. I believe that singularity is entirely possible and the acceleration of change that is engrained in history shows that this may happen in the near future. How can a machine be intelligent? How wouldn't really be the question I would begin with. When will machines be intelligent? There are several predictions about the upcoming singularity. Dr. Ray Kurzweil (Futurist and Author) explains how in 2029 will be the completion of the complete reverse engineering of the human brain. As of now we have already modeled and simulated 20 regions of the brain. First, the cerebellum: where we do our skill formation (like catching a ball). Next the cerebral cortex: where we do our logical thinking and pattern recognition. This is really what human intelligence is based on: our ability to recognize patterns and differentiate between pa...

Chromebook vs. Surface Pro 2 vs. iPad Air: Top Tablets and Ultrabooks Compared

We are now thoroughly in the age of highly portable computing with a number of high quality tablets and ultrabooks available. Ultrabooks are designed to have all the power of laptops with a fraction of the bulk, and tablets give you computing options not found in any other gadget. The best portable computing solution for you will depend largely on exactly how mobile you need to be. Chromebook Chromebooks set out to occupy a completely new niche in the portable computing world. They are essentially like ultrabooks or laptops but for under $300. They are similar to the so called “netbooks,” but basically the device is like a laptop that only runs a Web browser. So if browsing the web is all you want to do really, Chromebooks are the tool for you. Chromebooks run Chromium, which is based on the Chrome web browser. So anything you can run in Chrome you can run on a Chromebook. This makes them perfectly suited for Web games, word processing, videos, and so on. But anything m...

Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS)

Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) is an electronic power supply unit which uses internal control circuit that switches load current t to stabilize the output voltage. They are used in military and avionics equipment. SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) can be opened with the help of screw driver. Switch off the AC power supply before opening the cabinet of SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS). Functional block diagram of SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) mainly consists of following sections: Primary Rectifier - It is placed after the surge filter and consists of a combination of 4 diodes or rectifier device having 4 terminals. It converts the AC current into pulsating DC. They can be combined in pairs inside TO220 type packages. Take trail for shorted and open junctions. Primary Filter - It is placed after the Primary Rectifier Section and consists of big size electrolytic capacitors of higher voltage capacity. The specifications of capacitors are C1 =330µ...

Installing Memory

Installing the Memory RAM is the main memory of the system. The installation of RAM depends on the amount of memory required for the processor. It also depends on the configuration of the motherboard. Before installing RAM, we need to have some knowledge about the system requirement. Consider the following points before installing the RAM: 1. Capacity of the RAM required 2. Check if installed memory is supported by motherboard and processor 3. Form Factor of the RAM 4. Type of RAM needed 5. Tools required for mounting the RAM on the motherboard. 6. Warranty of the RAM Recently, 128MB, 256MB, and 512MB RAMs are available. While selecting the RAM according to its capacity, check the type of the processor used in the system. The Pentium 4 processors support all the latest RAMs. Form factor is the size and shape of any electronic device. The installation of the RAM also depends on the form factor of the RAM. The different form factors of a RAM are SIMM, DIMM, and SODIMM. To insta...

The Sinclair ZX80 Home Computer

Clive Sinclair was born on 30th July 1940 near Richmond Surrey, Britain and the world had found a new entrepreneur, a transistor pocket radio, the pocket calculator, the black watch the Sinclair C5 and a DIY Home computer were to be among his achievements Sinclair Radionics Ltd was founded in Britain’s Silicon Valley, Silicon Fen, also known as the “Cambridge Cluster in Cambridge on 25th July 1961, after several name changes the company Sinclair Instrument Ltd changed its name again in 1977 this time to Science of Cambridge, The Company’s first product was a watch-like Wrist Calculator. Chris Curry who followed Clive Sinclair with his new company was shown a prototype microcomputer this was based around the National Semiconductor SC/MP microprocessor and some parts taken from an earlier Sinclair calculator. Sinclair launched a microcomputer in kit form called the MK14 Chris Curry was so impressed by its possibilities he persuaded Clive Sinclair to adopt th...

EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESORS

Intel has created microprocessors families that are customizable to suit the systems used for different purposes. The speed, performance, and price of a microprocessor differ from one processor family to another. The following table shows the various Intel microprocessors created between 1971 and 2000. 1971 4004 1972 8008 1974 4040 / 8080 1979 8088 1982 80286 1985 80386 series 1989 80486 series 1993 Pentium family 1997 Pentium II family 1998 Celeron / Xeon family 1999 Pentium III family 2000 Pentium IV family Intel released the 4004 Microprocessor in the year 1971, which was used in Busicom calculators.The 8008 Microprocessor was created in the year 1972. These microprocessors were used in bottling machines and systems that needed little processing. Intel released the 4040 and 8080 microprocessor in the year 1974. The 4040 was the 4004 microprocessor with extra instructions built into it such as logical and comparative capabilities. The 8080 microproce...

Memory Specifications

Memory Specifications Memory is selected for the system depending on its motherboard configuration. The motherboard should support different characteristics of the memory. The different memory characteristics are: A. Size of a Data Bus of Memory B. Module Error Checking and Correcting Module C. Parity and Non-Parity chips D. Memory Frequency E. Memory Bank Size of the Data Bus of a Memory Module Size of the data bus specifies the amount of information flowing in each clock cycle. The data bus size differs depending on the memory modules. A single sided memory module will have a different data bus size from a double-sided memory module. A 30-pin single sided memory module will have an 8-bit data bus whereas a 72-pin single sided memory module will have a 32-bit data bus. A 72-pin double-sided memory module will have 64-bit data bus. Before installing SIMM on the motherboard, check the type and the capacity of the DRAM chip. Error checking and Correcting Module Error checking...

Atari ST the Musicians Choice

Atari was founded on 28 June 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney specializing mainly in arcade games, home video game, and home computers it crossed the threshold of the home computer market with the launch of its 8 bit range of computers, and can boast as being the first home computer designed with its own custom coprocessor chip. The family blossomed from the Atari 400 with the birth of the 800 the Atari XL and XE. After the Atari 2600 games console was released in late 1977 work on a more advanced and powerful system, working on the 16/32-bit computer system, the Atari 520ST was launched at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in January 1985 Thirteen years from Atari’s founding. Fighting off competitors like Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga ST standing for Sixteen/Thirty-two, (16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals) with 512 KB of RAM and a 3½" double-sided double-density floppy disk drive, the Atari ST faced up to the Apple Macintosh and ...

Configuring the Floppy Disk Drive

Configuring the Floppy Disk Drive A system can have two floppy disk drives. The drives are represented using the A: and the B: The floppy disk drive can be assigned the required drive letter using the data cable. For example, if you want to assign the drive letter A to the 3.5-inch floppy disk drive, you must connect the floppy disk drive to the first connector of the cable. You can also specify the required drives letter A to the floppy disk drive by inverting the data cable before affixing it to the floppy disk drive, if the data cable does not have a twist in it. You must configure the system BIOS to detect the installed floppy disk drive. To configure the floppy disk drive: 1. set off the system. 2. Enter the Delete key on the keyboard. The BIOS screen come into sight. 3. Select the Standard CMOS Settings. The screen displaying the CMOS settings appears 4. Select the required floppy disk drive. 5. Modify the option to display the installed f...

Advantages of Facebook Advertising

  Here are some of the advantages of Facebook advertising: Advertisements in Facebook are more flexible than in Google Adwords. Facebook has more character length for advertisement descriptions than in Google Adwords. Also, in Facebook you can create image based advertisements that likewise add to its flexibility. Facebook advertisements encourage multiple advertisement views. Many facebook users visit the site not only once but several times a day. As a result, your posted advertisement has a greater chance to be seen and noticed several times a day. Facebook advertising is inexpensive and it can reach your target market and potential buyers at a reasonable price. Facebook allows advertisers to direct advertisements to their targeted audience only. It could be a group of people with this age and income bracket who are likely to purchase the advertised products and services. Facebook can be accessed by smart phone users. So potential customers and target market can be reac...

4inkjets vs. 123inkjets vs. Wercan.com: Ink and Toner Sites Compared

Buying ink isn’t the kind of thing anyone gets real excited about, though ordering a new printer certainly could be. Either way, the important thing is that you can find the printer and ink combination that satisfies your needs and that you can order without too much trouble in the manner of your choosing. Here are a few ink products 4InkJets   The 4Inkjets site has plenty of solid choices for inks and toners, and many good features besides, such as their free shipping. You also get the Google Trusted Status and the A+ BBB rating.           Features 7-Day Live Support-You can contact support for help with your printer ink and toner needs around the clock all week. The number is 800-465-5387. Variety of Ink Types-This includes HP, Canon, Epson, Lexmark, Brother, Samsung, and Xerox among others. Free Shipping Over $50-If you spend at least $50, you can get your order shipped to you for free. This is only for the contiguous U.S., however. You d...

Data Link Layer of the OSI Model

Data Link Layer of the OSI Model Data link layer is the second layer of the OSI model. It handles data transfer between network and the physical layers of the OSI Model. Data unit at the data link layer is called as frame. Data link layer receives data from network layer. It adds header and trailer to the data and passes data to the physical layer. At the receiver side, data link layer receives data from the physical layer. It detaches header and trailer from the data and passes data to the network layer. Functioning of Data Link Layer Responsibilities of the data link layer are: Framing - The physical layer distributes raw bits from the source to destination. During transmission, the value of the bits can change. It is also possible that the number of bits received by the receiver may be different from the number of bits sent by the sender. To resolve this problem, the data link layer organizes the bits into manageable data units called as frames. Physical Addressing - Data link ...

Network Layer of the OSI Model

Network layer of the OSI Model This is the third layer of the OSI model. The data unit at this layer is known as packet. There is no need of the network layer if the two communicating devices lie on the same network. However, when the two devices are connected on different networks, network layer is essential for providing source to destination delivery of packets. Network layer receives data from transport layer. It adds header to the data and passes data to the data link layer. At the receiver side, network layer receives data from data link layer. It detaches header from the data and passes data to the transport layer. Responsibilities of the network layer The responsibilities of the network layer are: Logical Addressing - The data link layer provides physical addressing which is useful for a local network. When the packet is destined for a device outside the network, we require other addressing scheme to identify source and destination. Network layer adds header to the data th...

Spring Desktop Wallpapers

A desktop wallpaper is, in its simplest state, the picture background on your computer screen. You have complete autonomy over what picture you wish to use for your personal computer and may even paint or otherwise create your own background. It is possible to bring the seasons to your desktop by downloading a free picture from the internet, or taking a photo of a seasonal setting yourself. Spring can be captured on your desktop wallpaper in many forms. Thinking about what Spring means to you is the first step in bringing life to your computer. For many people, Spring is the growth of new life, of green hills, blooming flowers and new-born animals, such as lambs, rabbits and birds. Images of sunny waterfalls, rainbows and fresh mornings also represent this season. Why bother choosing a Spring desktop wallpaper? If you are spending any time at all on your computer, the desktop image can have an effect on your mood. A fresh, sunshine image can uplift you, a green based i...